Over time, humans adapted to more favorable environments from hostile ones. Throughout history, the topography of the land, the availability of water, and the climate have all played an important role in developing human settlements. In order to understand the holistic image of India, the influence of geography on Indian history is imminent. The following points illustrate some of the major effects of geography on Indian history.
Influence of the Himalayas on Indian History
The Himalayas act as a barrier to Siberian cold winds because this climate in north India has been comparatively warm & this warmer climate has played an important role in the growth of flora and fauna. It is suitable for human life as population density is increasing than china & other neighboring countries.
Act as barrier density to foreign invaders. Throughout Indian history, no invasion was witnessed from the Chinese side except in 1962. As the Himalayas are impossible to cross in large groups.
The Himalayas range is almost uncrossable for large groups but small passes found through the Himalayas range have enabled socio-cultural & economic contact of India with the outside world. Because of the barrier of the Himalayas India had been largely free from politico-military upheavals faced in central Asia.
The Himalayas are a source of no perennial rivers & these rivers have been cradles of civilization & culture in India for ages.
Influence of the Other Mountains On Indian History
Hills & mountains have divided India into diff geographical regions. As a result of this regional culture emerged.
Vindhyas have ensured that the politico-military dev in north India did not much impact on the peninsula of India. As a result of this culture in peninsular India continued to flourish when north India was invaded by Turks.
Aravalis divided western India into no of pocket because of these west India has always seen a large no of principalities when this Rajput states were in power, political unification ware care in these states.
Because of the hilly terrain, Marathas could fight against the Mughals by sung guerilla warfare.
Role of the Fertile Plains On Indian History
The availability of fertile plains in North India ensured the emergence of large empires North.
Throughout Indian history, there has been no single of when power could rule over the whole of India by starting from the south whoever controlled N. India controlled the south but the opposite was not seen because of resources provided by fertile plains.
French failed against the British because their focuses were on the south. When the English company captured Bengal it became almost invaluable. It was the conquest of Bengal that sealed the fate of India.
It is because of the availability of fertile plains the capital was always located between Lahore and Calcutta.
Role of Mineral, Forest, Natural Resources on Indian History
Resource availability has left a lasting impact on the direction of Indian history because most powerful empires emerged in these areas where natural resources were available in plenty.
Magadhan imperialism was far more successful than the 15 other Mahajanpadas because of the availability of iron nines, timber, and other natural resources in the Magadha region.
The availability of allowed Magdhan rules to use a few weapons on large scale. Their army was for more successful.
Role of Climate On Indian History
The warner climate of N. India when compared with the trans-Himalayan region has ensured that most of the vegetation & human population could wont to flourish throughout ages.
The extreme climate of the Himalayas region has ensured that the population density remained very low. The natural vegetation & other forms of wildlife could continue to survive in such low population density areas.
Influence Of Rivers On Indian History
The alluvial soil brought by rivers has farmed extensive fertile plains in India. These plains have provided resources for the continuation of human life throughout ages.
Rivers are narrow in foothills of mountains. These rivers could be crossed without & another tech. the early man settled in the foothills of the mountain.
Rivers and plains are prone to flooding these were almost possible to be crossed by early man. Gangetic plains were occupied after lakhs of years by stone-age man. Only by mesolithic age. the man started settling in Gangetic plains.
Rivers provided water for drinking as well as agriculture ie why cultures and civilization emerged in river valleys during ancient times.
Rivers also acted as political boundaries throughout human history.
Influence of Coasts on Indian History
Coastal areas have witnessed max interaction with the outside world. Because of this socio-cultural life in waste regions is cosmopolitan in character. People living in coastal areas have been liberal & progressive rigidities of feudal society were absent in coastal areas.
The extensive Indian coastline has allowed maintaining trade & commercial contacts with the outside world through outages even when over trade routes were obstructed due to political developments sea routs remained opened. It was because of this reason Harappan civilization continued to flourish in the Gujarat region for many countries after its decline in N W parts
The foreigner coming from the Arab world & Europe reached peninsular Indian before the north because of facilities provided by ports on indin wast.
Influence Of Monsoon & Rainfall On Indian History
Distribution of rainfall has also affected the course of Indian history in many ways.
Monsoonal rainfall reduced from East to West so the density of forest fellow the same pattern. Areas of moderate rainfall have been most density populated because of suitability to Agri & human life
The developments in the rain shadow region in Maharashtra have been throughout ages because of the absence of sufficient rainfall Agri could not progress. similar has been a picture of Gujarat & Rajasthan where rainfall is extremely limited.
Geographical Factor & Political Fragmentation On Indian History
Indias has continental characters. Because of extensive geographical spread, rulers in India have faced difficulties in carrying out Political unification. Except during few periods of the Mauryan age & imperial Gupta political fragmentation characterized Indian history throughout the ancient age.
Because of the extensive geographical extent affected Indian rulers get little time to look for a colony outside India or to subjugate the trans-Hindu kush region. On the other hand, foreign invasions have been more frequent throughout Indian history.