On balance, it would be fair to say that none of these horizons i.e. Harappan & Non-Harappan India are isolated village societies. The kinds of raw materials that are used at neolithic Chirand on the one hand and chalcolithic Ahar on the other hand, underline this quite forcefully.
- Some of these cultures are also located in resource-rich areas and it is likely that they were supplying copper, alloying metals, semi-precious stones, etc. to the Harappans.
- These links are evident from the presence of Harappan and Harappan-inspired objects in various such contexts as well the etched carnelian beads at Ahar, the microbeads steatite at Kayastha in Malwa, and at Chechar-Kutubpur in Bihar are a few such examples.
- Additionally, that certain cultural traits that may have been borrowed by the Harappans from contemporaneous neolithic-chalcolithic horizons need to be considered. For instance, one fact that is noticeable about the crop patterns of protohistoric India is that prior to the third millennium BC, the rice-growing sites seem to be concentrated in the Gangetic plains.
- It is entirely possible that the adoption of rice in the Harappan subsistence pattern (found at Harappa, Mitathal, and in the Gujarat sites) may have been a consequence of its links with areas to the east of the Indus system. These links may also explain why, following the collapse and abandonment of cities and settlements, there were significant migrations from Sind and Cholistan towards areas that lay east of the Harappan distribution zone.