In the development of Indian history and culture, the job of South India is no less critical.
While the historiography of the English and the European researchers depended on Euro-driven insight, the historiography of Indian researchers depended on the viewpoint of the Gangetic bowl in examining the variables in the development of culture and history of India.
In the beyond fifty years, new archaeological material has become visible and a basic assessment of abstract powers has demonstrated that Tamilham or Profound South has contributed altogether from days of yore.
Maurya Asoka’s declarations and Hathigumpha epigraph of Kharavela likewise allude to the most punctual chiefdoms of Chola, Chera and Pandya and their change from chiefdom to realm finds appearance in the Sangam writing. The beginnings of the recorded stage in Tamilham or Profound South can be followed to the Sangam age. K.K. Pillai suitably expresses, “The Sangam is a novel institution of the early Tamils. It has loaned its name to various traditional works with the outcome that Sangam writing and Sangam age have procured specific explicit implications, however in regard of subtleties, questions actually keep on persevering”.
The word Sangam is the Tamil type of the Sanskrit word Sangha and in this specific setting, the Tamil Sangam is perceived as an institute of artists and troubadours disparaged by the Pandyan rulers with its base camp at Madurai. It is extremely challenging to exactly date this Sangam age. The time frame between 300 BC and Advertisement 300 is for the most part called the Sangam age. In like manner, it is additionally extremely challenging to fix the sequence of crafted by the Sangam age. N. Subramanyam is of the assessment that the Sangam writing is inferable from pre-Pallavan age.
Tamilham as portrayed by its writing is the locale between the slopes of Venkatam and Kanyakumari. This district is a blend of different eco-zones of slopes encompassed by backwoods, undulating territory, wetlands, long ocean coast, pastures and parched zones. This area was under the political control of the three chief powers, the Cheras, the Cholas and the Pandyas. These were just chiefdoms and not realms.
The main political focuses in this area were Karur and the notable old port of Muciris (Cragnore) under the Cheras, Uraiyur and Puhar on the Coramandal coast under the Cholas, and Madurai and Saliyur, a port under the Pandyas.
(a) Kurunji or uneven boondocks,
(b) Palai or bone-dry zone,
(c) Mullai or peaceful plots,
(d) Maruttam or wetland, and
(e) Neital the ocean coast.
The occupations and way of life individuals of these eco-zones is shifted. Hunting and assembling was the control of Kurunji occupants. Individuals living in Palai relied upon ravaging and steers lifting. Moving development and creature farming were the control of individuals of the Mullai zone. Individuals of Marutam sought after furrow farming, and fishing and salt-production were the occupations of individuals of Neital eco-zones. We likewise notice bargaining of merchandise created by one eco-zone individuals with other eco-zone occupants. Step by step, these little gatherings of people living in various eco-zones became coordinated through communication and interdependence.
Where there was better usefulness, they created social divisions of work and in different spaces of lesser efficiency; individuals had a basic existence as factions. However every one individuals of various eco-zones shared a typical culture, the general public involved unevenly created parts. In the circle of political constructions likewise, we run over basic chiefdoms of families and complex chiefdoms of administering houses. An undeniable state framework was at this point to come to fruition here when contrasted with Andhra and Maharashtra locale where we notice the development of state framework under the Satavahanas.
In Tamilham, there existed a few chiefdoms of all shapes and sizes. The heads of these were tended to as the extraordinary child Peruniakan or Komakan or more youthful child. There existed three kinds of chiefdoms – Kizar or little bosses, Velir or greater bosses and Vedar or the greatest boss The Chera, the Chola and the Pandya were the three chief decision houses and were called as Muvendar or three Candar.
The relations between the bosses and individuals depended on connection. To increase their assets, the bosses turned to loot and catde-assaults. The goods was reallocated among the fighters, troubadours and vagabonds other than their own family members. In this general public, gift giving or Kodai additionally was particularly stylish. Sangam writing acclaims the liberality of the tribal leaders.
Work of individuals in Tamilham relied upon hunting and assembling woodland produce, dairy cattle raising, furrow agribusiness, fishing and salt-production and wayside theft. When of Iron Age, we notice a spread of setdements from the upland regions to the prolific waterway valleys and the ascent of rural economy. That farming was continued with the assistance of the iron furrow is known from writing and epigraphs.
Strangely, a seller in plowshare figures as a giver in one of the engravings. Water system offices were taken care of by individuals of the district just as by tribal leaders and rulers. At Kaveripattinam in Tamilham, stays of an antiquated supply have been found. The cultivators of the land known as Uzhavar or cultivators, and Vellar, or cultivators of the dirt developed paddy, sugarcane and heartbeats. We additionally go over a class of Atiyor, who might be slaves and Vinaivalar or wages laborers as can be assembled from writing. Sangam writing makes reference to that individuals of this age had extraordinary information on seasons, which was fundamental for effective development to take care of assorted populace of various gatherings of expert craftsmans like metalworkers, woodworkers, versifiers, ministers and priests.
We come to know from Sangam writing that the bosses got two kinds of commitments – Irai or customary commitment and Tirai or recognition. The bosses assembled the town assets like dairy cattle at one spot and reallocated them as gifts to the clerics and heroes via compensation for their administrations.
Tamilham society of this period was basically ancestral, portrayed by family relationship associations, emblem love and such ancestral cliques and practices. While ancestral traditions won in all the eco-zones, in the Maruttam or the agrarian locale, society seems to have become intricate by the continuous separation of old connection ties and the presentation of the Varna idea.
Social delineation dependent on ‘high’ and low’ bunches came to fruition in process of things working out. Other than farming, there were different callings like metal forgers, woodworkers and weavers. The vast majority of individuals followed old ancestral ceremonies of strict love and clique rehearses, and the general public was not minister ruled. Exchange and business was conceivable due to surplus creation of merchandise; we go over brokers – Unianan or salt vendor, Kogla vanikan or corn shipper, Amvai vanikan or material dealer and Pon vanikan or gold trader.
Tolkappiyam, the soonest Tamil punctuation text shows that Varna framework went into Tamilham as the previously mentioned merchants were given the situation with Vaisyas and the clan leaders of the Maruttam locale began asserting plummet from Suryavamsa or Chandravamsa. In this way, in the agrarian zones, we notice blend of old ancestral practice and Brahmanical thoughts. The economy of Tamilham relied upon exchange and trade other than farming creation.
There existed three degrees of exchange:
(2) Overland, and
In the neighborhood exchange circle, deal was the most widely recognized method of exchange to get transient wares of every day use; paddy and salt were the main two things that had a conversion scale. Significant distance overland exchange and significant distance ocean exchange brought about the development of metropolitan focuses just as seaports. There was a prospering exchange among Rome and Tamilham. Tamilham likewise had business contacts with Sri Lanka and South-East Asia. Roman just as Sri Lankan exchange settlements are in proof. Development of exchange and business prompted the utilization of coins as mechanism of trade in this period.
The coins might be separated into nearby and Roman coins. Sangam writing alludes to locally accessible coins of Kasu, Kanam, Pon, and Venpon yet coins with these names have not been seen as up until now. Roman coins were for the most part of gold and silver and seldom, copper coins were available for use.
In Tamilham of this period, administering clan leaders and rulers got significant pay from exchange and business from cost or Ulka gathered by specialists from the dealers. Income was gathered in real money and kind also. Craftsmans paid an assessment knovm as Karukara. Coming to weight and measures, in Tamilham, land was estimated as Mama and Cloak. Huge measure called Ambanam, and little measures, for example, Nali, Ulakan znd Alakka were common.
Sangam writing and other abstract texts allude to rustic trade habitats, inside market, towns and port towns. Inland towns like Uraiyur situated close to present day Tiruchirapalli, Kanchi or Kanchipuram and Madurai formed into simple market habitats. Also, there were port towns like Puhar or Kaveripattinam, Arikamedu, Colobil, Musiri and Tyndis. Bacare and Neleyamda were focuses of oceanic exchange. It is likewise said that Musiris was a bustling focus with a port swarmed with huge stockrooms and markets.
These port towns didn’t have close connections with provincial or nearby trade habitats, as they obliged the necessities of the respectability and the decision bunch. The essentialness of these relied upon the accomplishment of unfamiliar exchange and when abroad exchange declined, these focuses excessively declined and vanished as port tovms or Pattinams.
By first century BC, Tamil seems to have turned into an abstract language. The soonest cave epigraphs make this statement certain. Mark engravings found at Arittappatti, Karumgalakkuti and Kongarpuliyamkulam had both Tamil and Prakrit/Pali/Sanskrit words. Other than these mark inscripti